And when should I do this?

You can make your annual HSA contribution in one lump sum or in a series of payments throughout the year.

You can't make deposits to your HSA for any given tax year before the first day of the following year, but you can make them up until the day you file your federal income tax return for that year (without extensions) — this is similar to other retirement accounts like an IRA.

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For example, for the current tax year, you can make contributions to your HSA starting January 1 all the way through to April 15.

Just make sure that the financial institution or insurance company your HSA is invested with knows to record your April 15 deposit as a prior-year contribution.